Vernice liquida is very wellknown from the fourteenth century. Cennino Cennini already wrote of this in his treatise on painting of the late '300s the "Book of Art". The term "vernice liquida" frequently occurs in the first notes on oil varnishes and, for example, a Bolognese manuscript contains at least three methods of preparation. The Vernice liquida is made with the Moroccan Sandracca (Tetraclinis Articulata), a type of conifer very similar to juniper gum. It is yellowish and will darken with time, until it becomes reddish. The Vernice liquida is composed of Sandracca from Morocco and clarified linseed oil (1:1 ratio). To make the varnish more fluid, during the application with pigments and/or more siccative, a small amount of turpentine essence can be added. The paint is quickly dry to the touch, but requires a longer polymerization time, typical of oil varnishes. Normally is not necessary siccatives and is handcrafted by Giovanni Berchicci.